Finding the start of anatomy and how it will help us with our end product Laboratory 1, Anatomy and Physiology
Abstract. During the course of this project we were tasked with the duty of trying to identify what was causing our grandmother Tilly pain without prior knowledge or anatomy to help us. To thus start and hopefully conclude this project we will look towards the past to see how the history of anatomy was started and hopefully learn from their antics as to how anatomical thinking develops. Later on we will also dissect and take pictures of the insides of animals organs to help develop a point of reference.
It is said that anatomical studies of the human body were started around 1600 BC. Later on in fourth century BCE they did a majority of dissections were done on animals, which during this time, important distinctions were made within anatomy. Then from about 300 to 2nd century BC the first known school of anatomy was held in the city of Alexandria. From there on into the 2nd century the work of Galen then furthered the work on animal dissections. In the 17thand 18th century anatomy “flourished” due to the invention of the printing press that enabled the speedy exchange of ideas.
Oral Cavity is most superior part of the digestive system
the pig doesn’t have any teeth
the hard palate is tougher than the soft and folds together perfectly.
the thoracic cavity is small and compact so it doesn’t take up much space
if the pig had a deformed superficial fascia then it would struggle and die shortly after birth
the intestines are green
Thymus- is super undeveloped and tiny
Heart – is small and hugged between the lungs
Lungs – they don’t look like the way human lungs do in the body. are found more under the heart than on the side
Trachea – is relatively long to the ratio of the pigs body
Bronchi – it has two splits between the lungs
Esophagus – is behind the heart and is closer the the spine
Diaphragm – is below and behind the stomach
1.The lungs take up the most space in the thoracic cavity
- the trachea is small and compact to allow for quick air flow
- the thymus is a part of your gland system
the heart has four chambers unlike a human with two
lungs are very fleshy, multiple different tones and has texture unlike other organs
Stomach -a small sack that has a greyish pink coloring
Liver – is the largest organ in this cavity
Spleen – is bigger than the stomach and behind the liver
Sm. Intestines – are green and super compacts
Lg. Intestines – are longer and is located inferior to the small int.
Pancreas – on the left of the liver and is smaller than the liver as well
Mesentery – There are a large number of blood vessels in the mesentery, which nourish the small intestine with their blood supply.
- the liver takes up the mass of this cavity
- The stomach is under the liver and pancreas
Kidneys – bean shaped organs secured to the posterior wall by adipose tissue
Adrenal glands – small glands that sit on the superior margin of the kidney
Ureters – small tubes that connect medial wall of kidney to the bladder
Bladder – sac in the pelvis that serves as a reservoir for urine
Inferior vena cava – large vein that connects kidney and lower part of the body to heart
Abdominal aorta – large artery deep to the inferior vena cava
- for insulation purposes
- gland system
- Oral Cavity
o Hard Palate/ Soft Palate
- Thoracic Cavity
- Abdominal Cavity
o Sm. Intestines
o Lg. Intestines
o Adrenal Glands
o Inferior Vena Cava
o Abdominal Aorta
- Thinking questions (in italics): make a section to answer these. DO THESE DURING YOUR DISSECTION. ANSWER THEM TOGETHER AS A GROUP AS THEY COME UP IN THE PROCEDURES TO GET THE MOST OUT OF THEM.
- Describe how the hard palate is different from the soft palate. What accounts for this difference?
- What would be the result if the superficial fascia did not form correctly during fetal development?
- In which two body systems does the diaphragm belong?
- Which organ takes up the majority of space in the thoracic cavity?
- How is the structure of the trachea advantageous to its function?
- To which system does the thymus belong?
- How many chambers are found in the heart? Is this the same as the number of chambers found in a human heart?
- Describe the internal structure of the lungs as observed under the stereoscope.
- Which organ takes up the majority of mass in the abdominal cavity?
- Describe the location of the stomach in the abdominal cavity.
- How does the length of the sm. intestines compare to the length of the large intestines?
- How does the diameter of the small intestines compare to the large intestines?
- What is the purpose of the coiling of the intestines?
- Describe the lining of the stomach as it appeared under the stereoscope.
- What is the purpose of the adipose (fat) tissue located around the kidney?
- To what system does the adrenal gland belong?
- To what system do the inferior vena cava and the abdominal aorta belong?
- How many ureters should you have?
19. Describe the internal appearance of the kidney.